Sistema Educativo

Sistema Educativo

La educación es gratuita -obligatoria hasta el 9no grado- en todos los niveles de enseñanza (primaria, media, superior y otros niveles de enseñanza), al igual que los materiales de estudios. No existe analfabetismo. Se cuenta con 12 615 escuelas en todos los niveles de enseñanza y un total de 234 288 docentes, lo que representa un maestro por cada 53 habitantes directamente frente a las aulas. La matrícula del pasado curso escolar fue de 2 455 166 educandos.

La enseñanza superior en el país tiene una data de 266 años. Se podría hablar en la actualidad de un moderno y consolidado Sistema de Educación Superior en pleno desarrollo y con importantes resultados en la formación de profesionales, la investigación científica, la formación de postgrado y la vinculación a la sociedad en general. El país posee 64 instituciones universitarias, donde están cubiertas todas las provincias. Las Universidades o Facultades existentes abarcan especialidades de Ciencias Técnicas, Naturales, Exactas, Económicas, Agropecuarias, Sociales y Humanísticas, destacándose la creación de la Universidad de Ciencias Informáticas en el 2002.

Una nueva concepción de Universalización de la Educación Superior se ha venido  extendiendo, portadora en su esencia de un renovado deseo de alcanzar más altos escaños en el conocimiento y derrumbando las barreras privativas  hasta el momento de las capitales provinciales en la distribución de conocimientos. Hoy su presencia se hace ya notar en los 169 municipios del país en un total de 732 sedes municipales que imparten docencia, lo que convierte a la isla en un gran Campus Universitario. El beneficio reportado cubre a casi 147 000 nuevos educandos, propiciando un verdadero acercamiento universal de las aulas a la sociedad. La tendencia de los últimos años académicos de la enseñanza superior en el país es a habilitar cada año como nuevos profesionales a más de 18 000 educandos. Esta cifra debe ser incrementada en el futuro con un salto sustancial, toda vez que se incorporen al universo profesional  las 147 000 personas que en la actualidad se forman.

En el 2003 casi un tercio de los profesionales existentes en el país accedieron a diversas variantes de formación posgraduada, actividad a la que aportará en su crecimiento la municipalización de la educación superior, permitiendo incrementar las posibilidades de superación desde la misma localidad de residencia, elevando los niveles de conocimientos, la eficiencia y el desempeño laboral.

La media de escolaridad de los trabajadores en Cuba supera los 12 cursos académicos (niveles preuniversitario, técnico medio y docente nivel medio), mientras que 14 % de la masa laboral ostenta formación universitaria.

El camino de la revolución educacional emprendida en años recientes -comprende las educaciones primaria, secundaria y superior-, es sin dudas una inversión y apuesta de futuro a las puertas de la sociedad del conocimiento. Dicha revolución va a encaminada a elevar a planos superiores el capital humano atesorado y en constante actividad de creación y desarrollo de sus potencialidades, además de prestar su solidaria contribución y servicios a otros pueblos del mundo. Es en consecuencia la formación de capital humano un rasgo que asegura el presente y futuro del país y sus metas de desarrollo económicas y sociales. Del caudal presupuestario del Estado le son dedicados el 21 % al desarrollo educacional, valor que corresponde a una cifra superior al 10 % del PIB cubano.

En virtud de los planes educacionales y culturales de que se llevan a cabo, corresponderá en un futuro no muy lejano, la más importante fuente de ingresos y riquezas del país.

 


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